VPET History in Hong Kong
VPET (Vocational and Professional Education and Training) covers programmes up to degree level with a high percentage of curriculum consisting of specialised contents in vocational skills or professional knowledge. This page summarises the VPET development in Hong Kong with sociocultural evolution.
The VPET History Timeline provides an overview of VPET schools/institutes in Hong Kong.
- 1 Early days
- 2 Post-World War Two (1946 - 1960's)
- 3 1970's
- 4 1980's
- 5 1990's
- 6 2000's
- 7 2010's
- 8 Other VPET History Resources
- 9 References
As early as 1863, vocational training in carpentry, tailoring, shoe-making, printing, bookbinding and gardening was provided for 12 boys by Father Raimondi. Training classes were held in a building not far from the Roman Catholic Mission House in the City of Victoria (present-day Wellington Street in Central District). 
The West Point ‘Industrial Reformatory’ (養正院) was opened under Ignatius Ip Uen, James How, Aloy Leang and Asam Wan and taught 45 Chinese boys such crafts as shoe-making, carpentry, tailoring, and bookbinding. This institution may certainly be regarded as the first initiative in technical education in Hong Kong. It was the forerunner (operating on the present site) of St. Louis’ College. 
After vehicles were introduced in Hong Kong, there was a great demand for drivers and auto mechanics. In 1920's, some schools started providing relevant training courses. 
Salesian Fathers opened classes in shoe-making, carpentry, tailoring and printing. 
Taikoo Dockyard (太古船塢) also opened evening classes in technical subjects for apprentices working in the Dockyard. However, these evening classes were later absorbed by the Evening Institute of the Education Department and superseded by Technical College (香港工業專門學院).
St Louis Industrial School (聖類斯工藝學院) opened, replacing the "West Point Industrial Reformatory" (養正院), which was established by the Roman Catholic Mission in 1864.  It was the predecessor of St. Louis' School (聖類斯中學).
Established Far East Flying Training School (遠東航空學校), commenced training pilots and engineers for civil aviation. The Far East Flying and Technical School Limited as it was later renamed, sited at Kai Tak Airport, was a private institution.
Aberdeen Trade School (香港仔兒童工藝院) was founded by the Salesian Society. This school provided a general education, together with vocational training. It was renamed Aberdeen Technical School (香港仔工業學校) in 1950s.
The Government Trade School (香港官立高級工業學院) was founded in Wood Road, Wanchai. It was the the first Government funded, post-secondary technical institution in Hong Kong. In 1947, it was renamed Hong Kong Technical College (香港工業專門學院).
Post-World War Two (1946 - 1960's)
Hong Kong faced an acute shortage of skilled workers amidst its rapid industrialisation since the late 1950s. The secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools, new types of school in Hong Kong education system were introduced. 
Hong Kong Sea School (香港航海學校) was founded by Mr. Brook Antony Bernacchi (貝納褀) in 1946 to provide boarding and Marine service training for orphans. Due to the decline of Marine service need in the 80s, the school was converted into a secondary school in the 1993.
Tang King Po Trade School (鄧鏡波工業學校) was founded by the Salesians in 1953 with a donation from businessman Tang King Po.
Ho Tung Technical School For Girls (何東女子職業學校) was founded on a donation from Sir Robert Hotung. It was renamed Hotung Secondary School (何東中學) in 1998.
The Mongkok Workers' Night School (旺角工人夜校) was founded. It was renamed the Hong Kong College of Technology (HKCT) (香港專業進修學校) in 1987.
Jockey Club Government Secondary Technical School (賽馬會官立工業中學) was founded in 1960, located at Oxford Road, Kowloon Tong. The school was named after the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club who funded the construction of the school building complex.
Kowloon Technical School (九龍工業學校) was found in Sham Shui Po.
Caritas Adult and Higher Education Service (明愛成人及高等教育服務) was founded.
Shine Skills Centre (Kwun Tong) (展亮技能發展中心(觀塘)) was established. It provides vocational training programmes, career counseling and support to people with special educational needs.
The Government set up the Industrial Training Advisory Committee in 1965 and the Hong Kong Training Council in 1973 to study means to increase provision of vocational education for youngsters. These resulted in the first stage of the proliferation of vocational education in the 1970s. 
On top of the existing technical institute at Morrison Hill, 4 other Technical Institutes were established during this period, i.e. the Kwun Tong Technical Institute (1975), Kwai Chung Technical Institute (1975), Haking Wong Technical Institute (1977) and Lee Wai Lee Technical Institute (1979). They provided vocational education at the craft to technician levels.
Kwun Tong Government Secondary Technical School (觀塘官立工業中學) was located at the junction of Hong Ning Road and Kung Lok Road in Kwun Tong and officially opened on November 9, 1970. It was renamed to Kwun Tong Kung Lok Government Secondary School (觀塘功樂官立中學) starting from academic year of 1998/1999.
Lung Cheung Government Secondary Technical School (龍翔官立工業中學) Lung Cheung Government Secondary Technical School was one of five Government planned technical Schools in 1970.
Hong Kong Polytechnic (香港理工學院) was established, taking over the campus and staff of the Hong Kong Technical College. In November 1994, the Polytechnic acquired university status and was renamed The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (香港理工大學).
Hong Kong Technical Teachers’ College (香港工商師範學院) was established.
Hang Seng School of Commerce (HSSC) (恒生商學書院) were established. It was restructured and became Hang Seng Management College (HSMC) (恒生管理學院) in 2010 and attained its University title in 2018 as The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong (HSUHK) (香港恒生大學).
Vocational Training Council (VTC) (職業訓練局) was established. Under the Vocational Training Council Ordinance, VTC is a permanent and statutory body to provide a comprehensive system of vocational education and training (VET) in Hong Kong. The formation of VTC led to the second stage of the proliferation of vocational education in Hong Kong, including the establishment of three more technical institutes in 1986-87.  As of 2017, there are 13 member institutions under the VTC Group.
Pro-Act by VTC (卓越培訓發展中心) was established to provide practical training and professional development solutions for industries and individuals.
Hotel and Tourism Institute (HTI) (酒店及旅遊學院) was established (formerly Hospitality Industry Training and Development Centre; HITDC; 旅遊服務業培訓發展中心)
Chai Wan Technical Institute (柴灣工業學院) was opened.
Maritime Services Training Institute (MSTI) (海事訓練學院) was established. It was previously known as Seamen’s Training Centre (海員訓練中心)
Hong Kong Technical College (Chai Wan) (香港科技學院(柴灣)) and Hong Kong Technical College (Tsing Yi) (香港科技學院(青衣)) were established in 1993 to take over the Higher Diploma and Higher Certificate courses previously offered by the Hong Kong Polytechnic and City Polytechnic. The Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE) (香港專業教育學院) was established in 1999 by merging these two former technical colleges and seven former technical institutes under the VTC to provide quality vocational and professional education and training in Hong Kong. 
Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd) 香港教育學院 was founded and attained its University title in 2016 as Education University of Hong Kong (EdUHK) (香港教育大學)
The Chinese Culinary Institute (CCI) (中華廚藝學院), formerly Chinese Cuisine Training Institute (CCTI), was established to provide systematic training in Chinese cuisine.
The VTC established the Youth College (青年學院) to serve as the home base for youth training.
The Hong Kong Design Institute (HKDI) (香港知專設計學院) was established and it was open in 2010.
The VTC opened its first Integrated Vocational Development Centre (IVDC) (匯縱專業發展中心) in October 2008 to offer a wide range of vocational training programmes for learners with diverse backgrounds and educational attainments.
Tung Wah College (TWC) (東華學院) were established.
The VTC established the Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi) (香港高等教育科技學院) to provide career-oriented bachelor degree programmes for Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination (HKDSE) graduates starting from 2012.
International Culinary Institute (ICI) (國際廚藝學院) was established. A purpose-built ICI campus will be in operation in 2018.
Gratia Christian College (GCC) (宏恩基督教學院) was established.
Other VPET History Resources
- 千色教室(1997)第9集 即職復織職 (Copyright owned by RTHK)
- Waters, D. D. (1982). The technical institutes in Hong Kong, 1969 to 1980 : a study of their development. Retrieved from http://vpet.vtc.edu.hk/dspace/handle/999/217
- Sweeting, Anthony. (1990). Education in Hong Kong, Pre-1841-1941: Fact and Opinion (p.152). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- 馬冠堯. (2016). 新興行業和花車巡遊 汽車司機和修車師傅. In 車水馬龍：香港戰前陸上交通 (pp. 187-190). 香港 : 三聯書店(香港)有限公司.
- 黄棣才 (2015). 慈幼會修院 Salesian Seminary. 圖說香港歷史建築 Illustrating Hong Kong historical buildings, 1920-1945 p. 102-103 (ISBN 9789888340200)
- Waters, D. D. (2000). A brief history of technical education in Hong Kong 1863 to 1980 : a paper presented on the occasion of the 30th Anniversary: 12 October 2000. Retrieved from http://vpet.vtc.edu.hk/dspace/handle/999/953
- Aberdeen Technical School. (n.d.). 學校歷史. Retrieved Apr, 2021, from http://www.ats.edu.hk/index.php/intro/2018-11-26-06-39-45
- PolyU History. (n.d.) , from http://www.polyu.edu.hk/en/about-polyu/history/
- Kan, Flora; Lau, Wai Wah (2011).Colonialism and secondary technical education in Hong Kong: 1945-1997.Journal Of Vocational Education And Training, 2011, v. 63 n. 2, p. 171-189. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from http://vpet.vtc.edu.hk/dspace/handle/999/344
- Hong Kong Christian Service, Annual Report 2012-13, P.13-14 Retrieved Apr, 2021, from https://www.hkcs.org/sites/default/files/files/ar20122013.pdf
- University Grants Committee UGC (1 Feb 2017). Brief History. Retrieved July 7, 2017, from http://www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/ugc/about/overview/history.html
- Legislative Council Secretariat, Research Office (2015)Review of development of vocational education in Hong Kong. Information note = 香港職業教育發展的回顧. 資料摘要. Retrieved from http://vpet.vtc.edu.hk/dspace/handle/999/393
- City University of Hong Kong (n.d.) Celebrating 30th Anniversary - Milestones 1982-1989. Retrieved July 7, 2017, from http://www.cityu.edu.hk/cityu30/milestones-tc.htm
- Vocational Training Counci (2007) VTC 25th Anniversary. Retrieved Nov, 2007, from http://vpet.vtc.edu.hk/dspace/handle/999/941